“The Destruction of Sennacherib” – A poem by Lord Byron

In previous posts you learned more about the Romantic poets and I continue today with Lord Byron (1788-1824). He has been mentioned here before and was one of the leading poets of the Romantic Movement. Lord Byron may have lived a very adventurous lifestyle, but his time and place in history was also a more religious one than today. Therefore, many of his poems contains religious references to the Bible and Christianity. One such well-known poem is called “The Destruction of Sennacherib” and was published in 1815. In this poem Lord Byron manages to re-tell the biblical story (2 Kings. 18-19) on how the Assyrian king tried to capture Jerusalem. The Assyrian Siege of Jerusalem is historical (dated 701 BC), but the Assyrian annals report that the result was the payment of tribute by Jerusalem, with king Hezekiah remaining in office as a vassal ruler. Pay attention to how he builds up the story! Can you hear the horses while you’re reading?

The Destruction of Sennacherib

The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold,
And his cohorts were gleaming in purple and gold;
And the sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea,
When the blue wave rolls nightly on deep Galilee.

Like the leaves of the forest when Summer is green,
That host with their banners at sunset were seen:
Like the leaves of the forest when Autumn hath blown,
That host on the morrow lay withered and strown.

For the Angel of Death spread his wings on the blast,
And breathed in the face of the foe as he passed;
And the eyes of the sleepers waxed deadly and chill,
And their hearts but once heaved, and for ever grew still!

And there lay the steed with his nostril all wide,
But through it there rolled not the breath of his pride;
And the foam of his gasping lay white on the turf,
And cold as the spray of the rock-beating surf.

And there lay the rider distorted and pale,
With the dew on his brow, and the rust on his mail:
And the tents were all silent, the banners alone,
The lances unlifted, the trumpet unblown.

And the widows of Ashur are loud in their wail,
And the idols are broke in the temple of Baal;
And the might of the Gentile, unsmote by the sword,
Hath melted like snow in the glance of the Lord!

Bildresultat för Sennacherib
From the Khorsabad Palace of King Sargon II c.722-705 BCE Relief depicting King Sennacherib 
Bildresultat för Sennacherib

The Biblical References

According to the story as related in 2 Kings, the Assyrian army came “against all the fenced cities of Judah, and took them.” When the Assyrians were besieging Jerusalem, Hezekiah prayed to the Lord in the Temple, and Isaiah sent the reply from the Lord to Hezekiah to the effect “I will defend this city, to save it, for mine own sake, and for my servant David’s sake” (2 Kings 19:34), and during the following night the Angel of the Lord (מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה) “smote in the camp of the Assyrians an hundred fourscore and five thousand” (i.e. 185,000), so by morning most of the Assyrian army was found to have died, mysteriously, in their sleep (2 Kings 19:35), and Sennacherib went back to Nineveh.


wikipedia.org [various entries]



‘Through a mirror, dimly’ – Can we trace 1 Cor. 13:12 back to rabbinic literature?

Do you think Paul (circa. 5-67 A.D) might have had a section from Babylonian Talmud (Yevamot 49B) in mind when he or an assistant (read: scribe), penned the first letter to the Christians in Corinth? To Christians through the ages the First letter to the Corinthians contain some of the most well-known verses from the New Testament. Chapter 13 is dedicated to the praise of love (agape) and is often quoted on weddings. In Pauline terms it’s not about any earthly love, but that of the spirit – agape. The message of the chapter is that love (agape) will survive prophecy. This post will focus on verse: “For now we see in a mirror, dimly, but then we will see face to face. Now I know only in part; then I will know fully, even as I have been fully known.” (1 Cor. 13:12) + a very similar verse from the Talmud Bavli: “All the prophets gazed through a dim glass [literally: an ispaqlarya that does not shine], whereas Moses our Rabbi gazed though a clear glass [literally: an ispaqlarya that shine].” –Yevamot 49b.

I never read an N.T commentary which give a reference to Babylonian Talmud on the verse quoted which in a way can be fully understood since the Talmud Bavli (Babylonian Talmud) was finally a fixed “canon” about 600 when the Talmudic academies in Iraq finished it. But this fact doesn’t take away the possibilities of influence. We must also deal with some scientific context since the dimly mirror mentioned in both N.T and Bavli was a great scientific intervention in the first century and was made of polished glass rather than a speculum. In some translations, like the KJV the word “glass” instead of mirror is used.

I don’t know how established the Babylonian Talmud was as “text” when Paul was around but certainly he wasn’t unfamiliar with rabbinic commentary. I dare to say it contains traces of rabbinic literature and thought as Paul also was introduced to rabbinic scripture through the pharisee sect which was considered the most conservative. Religions also borrows themes and motifs from each other as they continue to develop. Paul presented his jewish background on several times in the N.T letters. “If anyone else has reason to be confident in the flesh, I have more: circumcised on the eighth day, a member of the people of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew born of Hebrews; as to the law, a Pharisee[…]” — Philemon 3:5-7

The dating of the First Letter to Corinth is estimated to have been written about 50-60 A.D.I will exclude several verses in chapter 13 through these brackets […]. I put in some verses 8-10 to frame the context.

The New Revised Standard Version:

[…]”Love never ends. But as for prophecies, they will come to an end; as for tongues, they will cease; as for knowledge, it will come to an end. For we know only in part, and we prophesy only in part; but when the complete comes, the partial will come to an end.”- 1 Cor. 13:8-10 […] “For now we see in a mirror, dimly, but then we will see face to face. Now I know only in part; then I will know fully, even as I have been fully known.” – 1 Cor. 13:12

Now, let’s compare the verse above to Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot 49b. I use a translation of the BT quote from The Zohar – Pritzker edition vol. I (Matt, 2004 p. 268): “All the prophets gazed through a dim glass [literally: an ispaqlarya that does not shine], whereas Moses our Rabbi gazed though a clear glass [literally: an ispaqlarya that shine].” –Yevamot 49b

Now, we have some more context! Let’s take a look at the word * ispaqlarya [אִסְפַּקְלַרְיָא] mentioned. It’s in Aramaic with the following meaning:

  1. speculum; lens; mirror
  2. glass
  3. windowpane
  4. In Jewish mysticism, of a later date than antiquity, it refers to prophetic vision

I don’t have to remind you about 1 Cor 13, but it’s clear there’s a parallel between mirrors and prophecy, ok. Now, let’s take a look at Talmud Bavli and see for ourselves where Paul likely got his inspiration! It’s important to remind you dear reader that plucking out verses is not a jewish habit, it’s something Christians do in their bible study.  WE need to take a look at a the entire section were this small quote appear.

The Rabbinic context : Yevamoth 49b. (Soncino Babylonian Talmud)

Yevamoth 49b is a large section of text dealing with various topics. The entire tractate Yevamoth is mostly concerned with marriage and off-spring. Footnotes relating to various other verses opted here:

SAID R. SIMEON B. AZZAI etc. [A tanna] recited: Simeon b. ‘Azzai said, ‘I found a roll of genealogical records in Jerusalem and therein was written “So-and-so is a bastard [having been born] from a forbidden union with] a married woman” and therein was also written “The teaching of R. Eliezer b. Jacob is small in quantity but thoroughly sifted”. And in it was also written, “Manasseh slew Isaiah”‘.

Raba said: He brought him to trial and then slew him. He said to him: Your teacher Moses said, ‘For men shall not see Me and live’ and you said, ‘I saw the Lord sitting on a throne, high and lifted up’. Your teacher Moses said, ‘For what [great nation is there, that hath God so nigh unto them], as the Lord our God is whensoever we call upon him’, and you said, ‘Seek ye the Lord when he may be found’. Your teacher Moses said, ‘The number of thy days I will fulfil’ but you said, ‘And I will add on to your days fifteen years’. ‘I know’, thought Isaiah, ‘that whatever I may tell him he will not accept; and should I reply at all, I would only cause him to be a wilful [homicide]’. He thereupon pronounced [the Divine] Name and was swallowed up by a cedar. The cedar, however, was brought and sawn asunder. When the saw reached his month he died. [And this was his penalty] for having said, ‘And I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips’.

[Do not] the contradictions between the Scriptural texts, however, still remain? — ‘I saw the Lord’, [is to be understood] in accordance with what was taught: All the prophets looked into a dim glass, but Moses looked through a clear glass. As to ‘Seek ye the Lord when he may be found [etc.’] one [verse] applies to an individual, the other to a congregation. When [is the time for] an individual? — R. Nahman replied in the name of Rabbah b. Abbuha: The ten days between the New Year and the Day of Atonement. Concerning the number of thy days I will fulfil, Tannaim are in disagreement. For it was taught: The number of thy days I will fulfil.

The verses on Moses and dim glass are further exploited in the medieval midrashim such as the Leviticus Rabbah, 1:14. It contains numeruous homilies on Leviticus and was composed in the 12th century. With a supposed reference to a first century Sage Leviticus Rabbah, 1:14 concludes: “All the prophets had a vision of God as he appeared through nine specula while Moses saw God through one speculum.”

The Babylonian Talmud today.


  • Epstein, Isidore, and Israel W. Slotki. 1936. The Babylonian Talmud. Vols. 1-2, Vols. 1-2. London: Soncino Press.
  • Frankel, Ellen, and Betsy Platkin Teutsch. 1992. The encyclopedia of Jewish symbols. Northvale, N.J.: J. Aronson.
  • Nestle Aland : Novum Testamentum Graece (N28)
  • New International Version (NIV)
  • Matt, Daniel C. 2004. The Zohar Vol. 1. Vol. 1. The Zohar. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  • Leviticus Rabbah – Hebrew version online here (Bar Ilan University).